· What is goat rearing?
· Advantages of Goat rearing
· Disadvantages of Goat rearing
INTRODUCTION: Livestock have been always important part of the agriculture. In the development of Agriculture animals played vital role particularly the domestic animal. Animals were the primary factor for evolving agriculture in this planet. They contributed the most in the development of agriculture. They play significant role in field preparation like ploughing, sowing of seeds and harvesting of crops.
Livestock are also emergency income source for poor farmers.
There are five common species: Cow, Buffalo, Goat, Sheep and Pig. These are considered as livestock species. Every livestock species play significant role in agriculture. Cow, Buffalo and Goats are milch animal. They are the primary source of milk. Sheep is used for fibre production. Pig is reared for meat production.
In this article we will particularly focus on Goat Rearing. Goat is one of the major livestock species. Goat rearing can be very profitable business in both rural and urban area
What is goat rearing?
Goat is scientifically known as Capra Hircus . It is one of the major livestock species. It is found all over the world. Goat is reared for both milk and meat production. It is called dual natured livestock.
Advantages of Goat Rearing:
“Goat is called Poor Man’s Cow. It is a small sized animal and its space and feed requirement is very less in comparison to other livestock species. Goat rearing can be started with very less investment. There are many advantages of goat rearing Lets discuss them one by one.
1. Dual nature livestock Species: The first and foremost advantage of goat rearing is its dual nature. It is used for both milk and meat production. In case of failed assimilation, goat can be used for its meat. There are other livestock species like Cow, Buffalo that can be used only for milk as their meat is restricted in many religions.
2. Small Sized Animal: Agriculture is backbone of our country. Most farmers are marginal farmers. They don’t have enough space for big livestock species like cow and buffalo. Goat rearing is the best for them as it requires very less space.
58 years old woman Hemanti Devi , who resides in hilly area of Uttarakhand says : We didn’t have enough space for cow at our home. We started goat rearing, now we have 10 goats. They can be easily accommodated in a small room.
3. High Medicinal Properties of Goat Milk: Goat milk helps in healing lot of diseases. It is used to increase platelet count in the blood during Dengue and other viral disease. It contains lot of antibodies too.
4. Less Gestation Period: The goat has only 180 days gestation period, whereas the gestation period of other cattle like Cow and Buffalo is 270 and 310 days respectively. Goat can parturate twice in 12 to 18 months.
5. More number of Kids in single kidding: In single kidding Goat gives twice and thrice kids but in cow and Buffalo mostly single offspring takes birth. Goat has capacity to parturate at higher rate.
6. Pack Animal: Due to its quick and active nature Goat is also used as a Pack animal. It is used in hilly areas where the routes are not so good. Goats are used to walk these types of routes. They are used to carry small loads.
7. Manure formation: Today’s era when the entire world’s soil has become problematic due to excess use of chemical fertilizers. Goat rearing is a good source of manure. This manure can be used in small kitchen garden and Nursery. In this way, it saves farmers money and also works as an additional income source.
8. Fibre Production: There are several breeds of Goats which are used as fibre production. CHEGU breed of goat predominantly used for fibre production.
Disadvantages of Goat Rearing:
Every business has its advantages and disadvantages. In goat rearing, there are few disadvantages too. Let’s discuss them one by one.
1. Conventional system of Goat Farming: There are many goat vaqueros (a person who rear the goat) who are still using conventional method of goat farming. They are following tie method, closed housing, stall feeding etc. In tie method, we tie the goat by single rope .Closed housing is not suitable for goats.
Stall feeding doesn’t provide them opportunity of grazing.
All of these create negative impact on the growth and health of goats. In this way the goat vaqueros are not able to generate sufficient income from them.
2. Lack of Knowledge: There are very few goat vaqueros, who have enough knowledge about goat rearing. Many goat vaqueros don’t have enough knowledge about goats and their management for instance shed formation, type of housing and its space requirement, feed requirement, time and type of assimilation etc. Government should also provide training and arrange workshops for the goat vaqueros.
3. Lack of Livestock Institution: Lack of livestock institution and veterinarian is major problem in front of goat vaqueros. They don’t get timely check up of their goats to prevent them from diseases. There is no awareness among goat vaqueros about medicines and vaccines.
4. Scarcity of Green Fodder: Goats are very selective feeder. They prefer green fodder. In India we have very few months when green fodder is available. In other months they get to eat only dry leaves and dry grasses which affect their growth.
A 60 years old Kishan Singh, Goat vaqueros in hilly area of Uttarakhand, says “ During winter it has become very difficult to arrange green fodder for them. In winter season they totally depend on forest leaves.
5. Effect of Weather: Goats always prefer dry space for grazing. In Manson season they are entirely depend on stall feeding. It is very critical season for their growth and health.
Conclusion: In this article from beginning to till end, we focused on Goat rearing, its advantages and disadvantages. There are several advantages and few disadvantages of goat rearing. From the above discussed points it is quite evident that with low investment and little guidance about goats rearing, a successful business can emerge. It will be very beneficial for rural and urban small farmers. It will serve as an additional income for them, provide them employment and contribute in Indian economy as well.