Updated: Mar 7, 2022
The prominent changes in the field of agriculture when there are new inventions or technologies implemented are known as the agricultural revolution. It changes the way of production and increases productivity. In India, various agricultural revolutions took place and brought a new agricultural era. Some of them are:
For boosting the production of petroleum, a black revolution in India was started. It was initiated by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural gas in 2003. For petroleum production, the Indian government emphasizes more production of ethanol so that it can be mixed with petrol to produce biodiesel. Ethanol is a byproduct of sugar production. By using ethanol in producing petroleum farmers were benefited.
In 1966-67 green revolution was started in India. Its objective was to increase the production of food and feed thousands of malnourished people of India. Under this, modernization in agriculture took place, HYV seeds were introduced, proper irrigation systems were used, various machines in the field, pesticides, and fertilizers were used and production was increased, especially in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. MS Swaminathan, an agricultural scientist lead Green Revolution in India.
After the successful use of HYV seeds, the focus was to increase the use of fertilizers and pesticides to enhance the growth and produce wool to increase profit. Grey revolution is associated with more production of wool and increase use of fertilizers and pesticides. Livestock was diversified and genetic engineering and biotechnology were used.
World's largest dairy development programme, white revolution was launched in 1960 by India's National dairy development board. It was initiated to increase milk production of nation. Due to which, India became largest producer of milk from milk deficient nation. Dr. Verghese Kurien is considered as a father of White Revolution.
To improve the production and productivity rate of edible oil, Yellow Revolution came into existence in 1986-87. Yellow Revolution targeted 9 oilseeds namely, groundnut, soybean mustard, safflower, sunflower, sesame, linseed, niger and castor. Yellow Revolution implanted hybrid mustard and sesame seeds along with improved technology, which prominently increased the production of oil. Sam Pitroda is considered as a father of Yellow Revolution.
It is affined with immense egg production in India with the help of advanced technologies and methods of growing poultry. This revolution was initiated in 1969-78 by Indira Gandhi, Mother of Silver Revolution. This revolution was not only helpful in production of eggs but also provided employment to the women of rural areas.
Golden revolution was initiated to increase the production of horticulture and honey. Period of 1991 to 2003 is considered as a period of golden revolution. During this period, several investments were planned in the field of horticulture which increased the productivity. Nirpakh Tutej is considered as a father of Golden Revolution for his contribution.
Brown revolution was initiated to meet the requirement of coffee. It was related to Visakhapatnam's tribal areas.
Blue revolution is related to the intensification of aquaculture production. It was launched in 1985-90. This Revolution is also known as Neel or Nili Kranti mission. Its main aim was to promote fisheries among farmers to double their income. Hiralal Chaudhari is considered to be the father of Blue revolution.
Golden Fibre Revolution
Due to the colour and high cash value, jute is considered as golden fibre. Golden fibre Revolution was started in 1990's and is related with jute production. By using improved technology, proper cultivation techniques and organised processing, jute production was highly increased and made India the largest producer of jute.
To increase the production of tomatoes and meat in India, Red Revolution took place in 1980s. Vishal Tiwari is considered as a father of red revolution. Under red revolution, annual production was increased by 2.9 % over 1980-2008. Economic growth, storage facilities, urbanisation, demand and supply supermarket, etc surmounted.