It is use of technology in agricultural field to enhance the yield, profitability and efficiency. Improvement in the field of agronomy, agricultural science and agricultural engineering has developed agricultural technologies. Due to Industrial Revolution, machineries were introduced in agricultural field to reduce labour work and increase farm productivity.
Modern weather forecasting was introduced in 19th century. Threshing machines and portable engine were improved. Synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were developed in 20th century. Then in 21st century, information technology was introduced in agricultural field. Agricultural drones, robots, driverless tractors, etc. are used in farms.
Role of technology in Agriculture
India is an agriculture based nation employing 65% of population, having a share of 18% in GDP. To increase the share of GDP, involvement of technology in agriculture plays a vital role. Continuous improvement has been noticed by the use of digital tools, as crop yield is improved and farming community income has increased.
Mechanization in agriculture has improved productivity
Manual labour has been reduced by the involvement of machineries in agriculture. Like: use of seed cum fertilizer drill reduces time and manpower to more than half, etc.
With the help of artificial intelligence weather can be predicted
Major advancement in agriculture is the use of artificial intelligence. It helps to gather information and assist precision farming. Artificial intelligence updates farmer regarding weather forecasting which help farmer to earn profit without risking his crop. It enables farmer to identify defects in soil and check the soil health by capturing image with camera recognition tool. pH level and soil fertility can be measured by Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) technique. Satellites, drones collect information regarding weather patterns around the field 24×7.
Genetic engineering and biotechnology has developed various resilient crops
Breeding methods have been involved and high yielding varieties are now introduced. Genetic engineering has reduced cost for production. Pest resistance Varieties and increasing crop yield are some of the outcomes of genetic engineering and biotechnology.
Some modern technologies
Management of irrigation system through smartphones
With the help of moisture sensor present in ground, information regarding moisture level can be known to farmers anytime. Farmers can manipulate their irrigation system by just sitting in one place using their smartphone, instead of going to their fields.
In precision farming, GIS software is very useful. With the help of this software farmers can map their current and future years variations of precipitation, plant health, crop yield, temperature etc. GIS based agriculture has allowed implementation of satellites and drones to accumulate data on soil condition, weather, vegetation etc. which allows to make accurate decisions.
Satellite images can be used to monitor crop conditions, soil properties and tillage activities which allow farmers to predict harvesting, assess land uses, observe weather change, etc. Biomass production can be estimated by satellite imaging.
Drone application in agricultural field is increasing day by day. Use of agri drones have many advantages like preparation of weather glitches, crop monitoring, growth monitoring, soil and field analysis, etc. Drones also help to avoid overuse of chemicals. Drones detect pest attack and provide data regarding the range of attack which helps farmer to calculate the amount of pesticide or insecticide to be used.
EOS Crop Monitoring
Crop health can be tracked by using EOS Crop monitoring. EOS Crop monitoring analyse field condition by using satellite imagery. NDVI works on the principle of EOS Crop Monitoring. More value of NDVI means healthy vegetation. NDVI value ranges from -1 to +1. Scouting app provides digital field maps in mobile and desktop. This app inspects the problem of area and save ample of time.
Why involvement of technology in agriculture is the requirement of time?
With the increase in population, it is important to increase efficiency of agriculture. Use of robots for fruit picking process, crop harvesting, ploughing, planting, etc. can increase overall production.
Use of modern technology in agriculture is the only way to reduce human endeavours. Technology has enabled farmers to use less fertilizers, pesticides and water.
As land is the limiting factor, use of high yielding variety is important. Per unit area production has been enhanced by using HYV seeds.
Technology is very important in the field of agribusiness Management. As everything is being digitalised, it is important to connect farmers to online marketplaces.
Modern machines decreases the production time.
According to the current scenario, involvement of drones in agricultural field has become vital. Use of drone is cost savings and enhance efficiency.