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Agriculture in India| BLOG SHURUWAATAGRI

Updated: Mar 16, 2022

agriculture in India shuruwaatagri

Agriculture in India dates back to the long old days of the Indus Valley Civilization where crops like wheat, barley, peas, mustard seeds were cultivated in winter with sesame, millet, and rice in summer. As per the latest analysis, it is estimated that agriculture in India contributed 42% to employment and about 20.19% to the economy. The production of agriculture amounts to $375.61 billion making it is the second larger producer of agriculture products. In India, more than 50% of the land awaits rain for irrigation hence monsoon carries an important place in Indian Agriculture. As per the latest data total agriculture commodities, export was US$ 17.19 billion between March 2020 and February 2021 and imports accounted for INR 1.44 lakh crores. An average Indian farmer earns just Rs 77,124 in a year due to certain issues.



How can lifestyle of farmer be raised?
  • Increasing incomes- the government is focusing on this plan by its mission of doubling farmers’ income by 2022. Strengthening of seed sector and knowledge dissemination system could help.

  • Raising employment

  • Reducing risks- providing certain insurances can help.

  • Developing secondary and tertiary sectors since all three are interlinked.

  • Improving the quality of life of farmers.

  • Easiness in creditability.

  • Developing agriculture-based infrastructure.




Geography of India

India being rich in all three types of climatic zones- temperate, subtropical, and tropical enjoys huge diversity. It has the highest net cropped area. In India, out of 328.87 million hectares of Geographical area, 68 million hectares are critically degraded while 107 million hectares Are severely eroded. That’s why soil and water should be given first priority from the Conservation point of view and appropriate methods should be used to ensure their sustainability and future availability. There are huge diversified climatic conditions in India. Land slope ranges from flatlands to very steep slope lands. Somewhere the rainfall is as high as 11,430 while some areas run dry. Somewhere the forest cover is too dense while some are wastelands. Somewhere the soil is too fertile while somewhere it runs sandy. Some areas are rich in resources while somewhere it is in scarcity. With these huge variations, it becomes mandatory to adopt cultivation practices as per conditions availing there.




Here is the shortlist of crops being majorly grown in the mentioned states-

TEA         - ASSAM


Factors affecting agriculture in India

Physical factors like climate, soil, and topography.

Economic factors like proximity to market, transport facilities, availability of labor, capital, and governmental policies.


Major farming practices
  • Irrigation farming- when crops are grown with the help of wider irrigation systems by supplying water to land through rivers, tanks, etc.

irrigation farming shuruwaatagri


  • Shifting cultivation- is a type of farming where land is shifted or in other words plot of land is cultivated for a few years till the crop yield declines due to soil exhaustion for its replenishment.

shifting agriculture shuruwaatagri


  • Slash and burn agriculture- same as shifting cultivation but is regarded for a comparatively larger time.

slash and burn agriculture shuruwaatagri


  • Plantation agriculture- involves the cultivation of a single cash crop purely meant for sale over a large area.

tea plantation shuruwaatagri


Agriculture in different states
The agriculture produce and methods practiced strongly depend upon the climatic conditions along with the topography of the region in turn agriculture has a good say in the economic conditions and social structure of the region. In the time when there existed no currency agricultural produce was a greater means of exchange to fulfill the wants and needs.

In Punjab

The dependency of smooth agriculture on rains in Punjab is being replaced with a strongly developing irrigation network. The major agricultural products comprise wheat, rice, maize, and bajra. Punjab leads in cotton production. The main sources of irrigation include canals and tube wells. With a good number of rivers flowing through there as its name suggests, there exists a huge network of canals. The agriculture in Punjab is extremely intensive in terms of land, assets, energy, nutrients, agricultural components, water, and so on. The adoption of HYV seeds was much more extensive in Punjab than in other states during the green revolution.


In Haryana

Haryana also called the bread basket and food bowl of India experiences the cultivation of rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, gram, pearl millet, barley, etc. The government envisions to the adoption of the latest technologies by its farmers. Crop diversification, sustainable agriculture, seed certification, water management, soil health, etc. are being emphasized.


In Rajasthan

Being an arid state, it involves cultivation with an irrigation system. Agriculture here is a tough practice. North-Western Rajasthan is irrigated by the Indira Gandhi canal. Regions having black soil nurtures cotton. Its soil is suited for the cultivation of red chilies. Rice is not a preferable crop there due to low showers instead wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, pulses are commonly cultivated.


In Meghalaya

Agroforestry, crop rotation, polyculture, shifting cultivation and terrace farming are the common practices adopted here. Rice, maize, potato, pumpkins, pineapple, tomato are widely raised.


In Karnataka

Farming practices in Karnataka are mainly dependent on the Southwest monsoon. Rice, sugarcane, cashews, nuts, grapes, maize, moong, coffee, etc. are widely raised.


In Uttar Pradesh

It mainly raises rice, maize, gram, sugarcane, potato, lentils, peas, millets and wheat. It has good employment. It has a phenomenal geographical say in agriculture. In the North, there lies Ganges, Yamuna, Doab and the Ghaghra plains. The smaller vindhya range and plateau region are in the South. Terai in the Bhabhar tract.


In Uttarakhand

Most of the agriculture here is practiced through rain spells. Commercial agriculture in plains and subsistence in hills are commonly noticed. Major crops grown in the state includes rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize, soybean, oilseeds and pulses.


Major revolutions that eased agriculture can be availed through just a click at the cited site

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