CORN: The gold you can harvest in your field | BLOG SHURUWAATAGRI
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Maize is one of the most versatile crops which is grown throughout the tropical as well as the temperate region of the world. It is grown and harvested every month.
It has the highest yield/ha among the cereal crops and also has various uses due to which it is known as Queen of Cereals.
How Maize is gold
Maize is a highly valued cereal and is in high demand. High grain prices and an increase in yield have benefited farmers economically. An increase in demand for maize, use of maize in ethanol production, and orders from China has resulted in high returns.
Maize has various uses and has the highest genetic potential among the cereals that is why its cultivation is beneficial.
Maize is used as a staple of human food as well as fodder. Indian Poultry Industry is one of the largest consumers of maize.
Maize is also used by industries as a raw material for oil, alcoholic beverages, cosmetics, gums, etc.
Maize is the only cereal crop whose production as well as productivity has increased for the last two decades.
Scenario of maize
It is cultivated in almost 170 countries. The USA is the largest producer which contributes 35% to the total production in the world. Countries like China, India, Mexico, and Brazil are important growing countries.
Third most significant cereal crop in India. 10% of the production in-country is of maize. It is generally grown in Kharif season, but productivity in Rabi season is more.
Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka have the highest area under Maize cultivation. Maize is also cultivated in Telangana, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and others.
In India, the production of maize is about 22.23 M tons.
Maize requires 21 °C temperature for germination and 32 °C temperature for growth. For Rabi maize, the minimum temperature requirement is 14 °C. During the flowering stage, if temperature increases and humidity decreases then grain filling becomes lousy.
Sowing time and soil
Kharif season: Late June to the first week of July Rabi Maize: Late October to mid-November Spring maize: Late January to end of February
Maize is grown from heavy clay soil to light sandy soil. Deep fertile, well-drained, organic matter rich, and medium-textured soil with good water holding capacity is considered best for cultivation. Proper drainage is very important.
Field can be prepared by 1 plowing and 2-3 harrowing and planking. A drainage channel should be made. Leveler can be used for leveling the field. Ridge and furrow system is used for sowing maize in high rainfall areas.
Maize- potato Maize- mustard Maize- sugarcane Maize –wheat – green gram/black gram Intercropping ratios Maze + Urd (1: 2) Maize + Moong (1:2) Maize + Soybean (1:1) #maizeandsugarcane #amaizeplant
What should be the seed rate and spacing?
Hybrid : 20 - 25 kg/ha 75 × 20 cm Composite : 18-20 kg/ha 75 x 20cm Sweet corn : 8- 10kg/ha 75 x 25cm Baby corn : 25kg/ha 16 X 20cm Pop corn : 12kg/ha 60×20cm Fodder maize : 50kg/ha 30×10cm
Top Varieties in India
DHM-103 DHM-105 Amber Popcorn Priya sweet corn DHM-1 DHM-107 Trisulatha DHM-109 Varun Madhuri (Sweet corn)
Maize requires all three primary nutrient supplies as well as zinc. Soil nutrient status and cropping system are the factors. In Maize cultivation, it is wise to apply nutrients by integrated nutrient management strategy. Maize generally needs-
10 tons FYM per hectare
150- 180 kg nitrogen, 70-80 kg Phosphorus, 70 to 80 kg potassium, and 25 kg zinc per hectare. Complete doses of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc should be applied at the basal, preferably drilling of fertilizers in bands along with the seeds.
Nitrogen application is done in 5 splits.
1st split at basal: 20% RDN
2nd split at the four-leaf stage: 25% RDN
3rd split at 8 leaves stage: 30% RDN
4th split at teasing: 20% RDN
5th split at grain filling: 5% RDN
If there is a deficiency of major nutrients in maize then yield can be reduced up to 30%.
During Kharif season, the serious problem in Maize is a weed that can cause a reduction of yield up to 35%.
Pre emergence Atrazine @ 1.5 kg a.i per ha in 600 L water Alachor @ 2-2.5kg a.i per ha Pendamethalin @1-1.5kg a.i per ha Postemergence Tembotrione 42% SC @ 287.5 g a.i/ha at 3-4 leaf stages of weeds.
Major pests which are prevalent in India in Maize cultivation are Pink borer, fall armyworm, shoot fly, and termites.
Pink borer- Winter season is favorable, particularly in peninsular India. Foliar spray of chloratraniliprole 18.5sc @150ml/ha in 500-600 litre water. Fall Armyworm- It attacks all stages of maize. Neem cake at the rate of 200 kg/acre in zero tillage. Seed of maize can be treated with Cyantraniliprole 19.8% along with Thiamethoxam 19.8% FS @6 ml/kg to provide protection for 15 days of Crop growth. Shoot fly: It is one of the serious pests of South India. To control shoot fly sowing can be done before the first week of February. If sowing is done in the spring season then the seed must be treated with imidacloprid @ 6 ml/kg seed. Termites: For its control, the application of fipronil granules should be done @20kg/h followed by a light irrigation. #maizearmyworm
Maize harvesting is done when stalks, as well as leaves, are green, but husk cover is dried. According to the purpose of maize, the moisture content in grain at this stage varies.
Cobs can be removed in harvesting while stalks are in the field which can be used as fodder but if the next crop is sown stocks along with cobs are harvested.
6 to 7 days of sunlight is required for drying after the removal of cobs.
How much can you earn from maize cultivation?
The cost for seed material is around Rs.3200
The cost for land preparation is around Rs.2600
Sowing expenses are about Rs.1000
The cost of weeding is around Rs 2300
For fertilizer, it would cost Rs. 3000
For pesticide Rs.1000
The cost of harvesting would be Rs.2000
Miscellaneous activities would cost 3500
The total cost of 1 acre of maize cultivation is around Rs 15000
In one acre of field, we can get 30 quintals of yield on an average, which could give us a return of Rs. 36,000
Therefore net profit that a farmer can earn from 1 acre of land is Rs. 27000 in a period of 3-5 months. This results, in maize cultivation having good returns.