Updated: Mar 19
Fish farming is a type of aquaculture in which fish are raised and grown in a specific area, fenced in all directions, and sold for food. It is the fastest-growing food producer in India. It is also possible to breed a wide variety of fish, whether exotic or rare.
Aquaculture is one of the most best and effective ways to conserve natural resources and prevent the depletion of rare fish species. Aquaculture is very lucrative, but it requires skill, maintenance, regular care, and supervision to get the best results. If not properly cared for and maintained, it will lead to the decline and extinction of species, and the business will suffer enormous losses.
There are basically two aquaculture systems:
• Extensive aquaculture: This is a pond or irrigation system that maintains a semi-natural environment and breeds various fish species using natural feed and some special equipment. Also, no special training is required. It cost less to the farmer.
• Intensive aquaculture- It includes fully enclosed systems, semi-enclosed systems/canal systems, and open systems.
Farmers often use fully enclosed or semi-closed systems. However, open systems, or floating marine cage systems, are now used to create cages in open environments. This allows farmers to easily control oxygen, food supply, and water quality. This is a costly method of raising fish but offers very high productivity. The only downside to this method is that it is prone to fish diseases.
How to start a business of fish farming?
The fishery provides great employment opportunities for people. You can also get a bank loan to start this business. You can start aquaculture by following these 6 steps:
•Secure the Land – Select and secure land on which to start aquaculture. The site must be close to the water source, surrounded by trees, and must have access to essential equipment. The soil must be of good quality and contain 20% clay.
•Choose your aquaculture type- Fish stock selection plays an important role in your business productivity, so it must be accurate. The fish selected should be marketable, cooked in a shorter time, and stored within the availability of resources. Some important types of aquaculture are:
1. Tilapia fish farming- It is Popular in the aquaculture tilapia market, it contains protein and grows rapidly (6 to 7 months). This aquaculture is profitable and mainly ponds are used for this.
2. Catfish farming- It can start on a small scale and cost less. Farmers can raise these fish alone or in combination.
3. Crab farming - It can be done in a small area with high density and less labor. It offers a good market economy and is growing rapidly.
4. Salmon Farming - Salmon farming is raising salmon from eggs in containers or ponds. Salmon are carnivorous, so a farmer needs 2-5 kg of wild fish to feed 1 kg of salmon.
Pond Construction and Well Digging
Ponds should be built in a clean, open area and the pond space should have sufficient space for fish to swim.
Understand the target of market
The demand of the local market must be understood by the farmers in order to plan and realize their business. Farmers should contact fish processing companies. Clients can contact you directly to eliminate intermediaries and increase sales.
Learn and train the skills you need
A little skill and knowledge of aquaculture are necessary because it is important to increase productivity. The government organizes programs to train farmers in disease control, water marketing management, feeding and processing, and more.
Installation of necessary equipment
The basic equipment needed for aquaculture includes pumps and fish tank counters. , water quality testers, fishing boat sorters, etc. Therefore, farmers need to know how to use and apply this equipment effectively.
Current status of fish farming in India
Globally, India is in the second position in fish farming. In India, the culture system bus based on 3-6 species combinations. India contributes 95% of total fish farming production. States like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Chhattisgarh contribute 92% of freshwater fish farming and are the top producers. Sewage-fed fish culture and paddy cum fish culture are two important culture that is traditionally used in some parts of the country. It is more challenging to do fish farming in face of increased land, water scarcity, climate change, etc.
Protein is very important in everyone’s diet today, and fish is rich in protein, delicious and healthy, very low in cholesterol, and good for the heart. Aquaculture is considered a very lucrative business because it provides a quick return on investment. There are so many fish that grow quickly and are ready to be sold in less time. This is an efficient business because of the high demand for fish.