Grafting is a method of propagation in which a shoot that consists of two or more buds is connected with the rootstock such that they unite and develop a successful plant.
Rootstock and a scion( shoot consisting of two or more buds) are the components of grafting. The rootstock should be 1 to 2 years old having pencil thickness. Scion having a thickness as of rootstock is selected and grafted on it.
In tropical and subtropical fruits, grafting gives better results in June July. In temperate fruits, grafting gives better success before the dormant season ends. After the grafting process, is done the union should be sealed properly using polythene tape or wax so that drying or desiccation of grafted portion should be avoided. The portion above the graft union can be removed when the graft starts growing.
Components of grafting
It is the lower portion of the graft union. It provides for the root system of the plant. It is of two types :
These rootstocks are developed from seed and have deeper roots. They are sturdy and strong. There is less chance of virus transmission from mother plant in seedlings' rootstocks. These are usually used in mango, ber, khirni, etc.
Clonal rootstocks are developed by vegetative propagation. It is commonly used in Apple.
Selection of rootstock Seedling rootstock should be 1 to 2 years old having pencil thickness. If you are using clonal rootstock is it must be healthy and vigorous. There must be compatibility in rootstock and scion, inter-specific grafting is very successful. Fruits like apple pear peach etc rootstock should be used during winters for grafting whereas fruits like Banana, raisins, etc rootstock must be used during active season for successful grafting.
It makes the shoot system of graft. Scion must have two or more dormant buds.
Packing and storage of scion wood
For deciduous plants, scion wood must be collected in the dormant season.
Scion which is collected for grafting must be wrapped in a moist jute cloth and packed in a polythene bag in which proper aeration and time to time watering are done.
Types of grafting
Some types of grafting are-
In veneer grafting 10 to 15 cm length of shoot is taken having pencil thickness. Before 10 days of grafting, all the leaves of shoot are cut so that buds can swell. Shallow and v shape cut is made in rootstock. Slanting cut is prepared in the lower portion of scion. Scion and rootstock are tied together with polythene. When scion starts growth, remove the extra portion of rootstock above the graft union. It is practiced in mango.
8 to 10 months dormant scion of 10 to 12 cm is used. At the base of scion, a slant cut is made and shallow or straight cut is made upon the first cut to make a small tongue, when we don't make this tongue the grafting is known as whip grafting. One-year-old rootstock is used. A slant cut in rootstock is made so that is scion can fit into it, graft union is tied firmly. It is commonly practiced in Apple, pear and walnut.
Cleft grafting is used in propagation of small trees. 5-8 cm slit is made in rootstock in which scion of 2-10 cm is inserted and waxed properly.
On the stub of plant, a 5 cm length v wedge shaped incision is prepared. Matching incision in scion is made which is inserted in rootstock firmly.
Bridge grafting is used where scion is healthy whereas some part of rootstock is damaged. Scratching is done in the damaged portion. An incision is made at the bottom and top of the stock in which a scion of suitable length is inserted. It is properly sealed with wax.
It is commonly done in repairing damaged woods of Apple, walnut, cherry, etc.
A small piece of bud is taken out as top of bark (taken as scion). Then, different types of cuts are made in Stock (T-budding, Shield Budding). And finally, bud is inserted and wrapped up. Mainly done in apricot, avocado, cherry, citrus, kiwi, mulberry, peach, pear, plum, etc
Epicotyl grafting/ Stone grafting
It is commonly followed in mango, in which seeds of mango are sown and covered with 5 cm thick FYM. 10 days old seedling is used for grafting. At a height of 10 cm, the seedling is beheaded in which a slit of 3 cm is made. Scion of 2 to 3 months old is used. Leaves are removed 10 days before grafting. Scion and rootstock are united using polythene tape. It is usually practiced from June to July.
Unlike other methods, in this method scion is removed from the mother plant after complete union. It is practiced in Jackfruit, mango, custard apple etc. This rootstock is grown in container and is brought beside scion. A cut of 2.5 to 4 cm is made in scion and a matching cut is made in rootstock. Scion and rootstock are wrapped using polythene tape. After the union, upper portion of rootstock is cut and detachment of scion is done from mother plant.
Proper moisture should be maintained.
Partial shade should be provided to newly grafted plant.
All the sprouts from rootstock should be removed.
All the inflorescence appearing on scion should be removed.
Polythene should be removed on time.
Support should be given to newly grafted plant.
Clean and sharp tools should be used for making slits.
Time and season must be optimum for grafting.
Hold the Grafting knife correctly.
Union must be wrapped properly.
Proper union must be made between Sion and rootstock.