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KHARIF CROP (Part 1) - Rice, Maize, Bittergourd , Soyabean

Updated: Jul 22, 2022


Context

Term Kharif derived from Arabic word. These crops also known as Monsoon crops/ Autumn crops which means it requires good amount of rainfall for better yield. These crops are cultivated in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh during monsoon season, that is, from June to November.


Examples : Rice(most important Kharif crop), Maize, Cotton, etc.

What is kharif season?

Kharif season is different for various crops and region. In India, it is from June and ends in October.


CHARACTERSTIC FEATURES OF KHARIF CROPS

1. Starts after the monsoon season.

2. Kharif crops are sown in April and May and are harvested between September and October.

3. Since these crops are known as monsoon crops and therefore these crops requires a lot of rain.

4. These crops requires loamy and alluvial soil for better growth.


CHALLENGES FACED BY KHARIF CROPS

1. If the rainfall pattern is heavy and uneven then it may harm the crop’s growth. An appropriate amount of water is required by the crop however too much water can have harmful impact on yield of crops.


2. Hailstorms can have severe damaging effect on agriculture. Heavy hailstorms can permanently damage the crops resulting in large economical loss of farmers.


3. If the weather of an area is inappropriate (extremely cold, extremely hot or heavy rains causing flooding of an area) may also have negative impact on growth pattern of crops, that is, quality of crop can be affected.


Some major kharif crops


Rice (Oryza sativa)



·       The most important kharif crop of India.
·       It is grown in areas having hot and humid climates.
·       Grown in rainfed areas.
·       Requires temperature around 25 degree Celsius and rainfall of 100cm.
·       It is the staple food of eastern and southern parts of India.
·    Type of soil required is silty, loamy and gravel but clayey loam is best suited.
·       Can be grown in alkaline as well as acidic soils.
·     Rice which is grown in well-watered low land areas is called lowland or wet rice.
·       Rice which is grown on hills is called upland or dry rice. (have less yield as compared to wet rice).
·       Seed rate = 40 to 100kg/ha.

How the rice is grown in India?
Traditional methods are used to grow rice in India.
·       Field is plowed and organic fertilizer is applied to the crops.
·       Field is smoothed.
·       Manual transplanting of seed is done.
·       Proper irrigation is provided to the crops at regular interval of time.
·       Seeds are cultivated.


Some diseases in rice are:-


1. BATERIAL BLIGHT

It is caused by Xanthomonas campestris.


CHARACTERSTIC SYMPTOMS:

· Small water soaked spots on the lower surface of leaf.

· Small spots enlarge and fuse with each to form large brown, dry spots.

· There is presence of narrow yellow border surrounds lesions.

· Sunken, Reddish brown spots are observed on surface of pods.


MANAGEMENT:

· Use of disease resistant, genetically modified seed varieties. (Genetic Resistance)

· Don’t walk in wet fields and also no reuse of irrigation water, avoid incorporation of infected debris after harvest into the field. (Cultural Practise)

· By reducing the contamination of seed coat by treating seed with Steptomycin and also the use of copper-based sprays in an appropriate amount into the field.


2. FALSE SMUT:



It is caused by fungus Ustilaginoidea virens.


CHARACTRSTIC SYMPTOMS:

· Some rice grain transforms into mass of yellow fruiting bodies.

· Not each and every rice grain is affected, few are in normal condition also.

· Infection occurs during reproductive and ripening stages.


MANAGEMENT:

· Some Preventive measures can be used such as use of disease free seeds, control of insects and pests and not its elimination, removal of infected plant debris from the field.

· Some Cultural methods can be used such as use of disease resistant varieties, avoid excess application of fertilizers, no field activities is to be done when the field is wet.

· Some Chemical methods can be used as treating seeds with Carbendazim and copper based fungiside to control or manage the disease.


Maize (Zea mays)


·       Most versatile crop, that is, having many benefits for human health.
·       Also known as “Queen of cereals” due to highest genetic yield potential of maize among all other cereals.
·       Third most important crop after rice and wheat.
·       It acts as an ingredient for several industrial products like starch, oil, food sweetners, protein, cosmetic, textile, gum, paper industry.
·       Maize crop has various purpose, can act as grain, fodder, green cobs, sweet corn, baby corn, popcorn and therefore is cultivated in all states of country.
·       Soil required for the better growth of maize can be loamy sand to clay loam. Soil having good organic matter, high water holding capacity, neutral pH will give higher productivity.
·       Maize should not be grown in low lying fields which have poor drainage facility to avoid moisture stress. Also in fields having higher salinity.
·       Sweet corn are grown for human consumption while field corn are grown for animal consumption.
·       Also acts as raw material in making ethanol.
·       Seed rate = 8-10 kg/ha.



Pests on maize crop are:-



 Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)

Corn earworm / Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa Zea)
Corn earworm / Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa Zea)

African army worm (Spodoptera exempta)
African army worm (Spodoptera exempta)

Stalk borer (Papaipema nebris)
Stalk borer (Papaipema nebris)

Some diseases in maize crop are:-


1. Maydis leaf blight of maize:



It is caused by ascomycete fungi Bipolaris maydis.


CHARACTERSTIC SYMPTOMS:

· Elongated lesions between veins on leaves.

· Different sized lesions are present.

· Formation of conidia and conidiophores in the centre.


MANAGEMENT:

· Some Cultural practices such as reducing chances of infection by producing hybrids of maize species, crop rotation technique can also be used.

· Some Chemical methods are use of foliar fungicides in the field.


2. CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT:



It is caused by the fungus Curvularia lunata.


CHARACTERSTIC SYMPTOMS:

· Small necrotic spots.

· Fully developed lesions are 0.5cm in diameter.

· Yellowing of whole leaf in severe cases.


MANAGEMENT:

· Use of GMO (Genetically Modified Varieties).

· Application of fungicides such as mancozeb in the field.

· Do not provide both- excess or limiting amount of water to the crops, the amount of water provided should be appropriate to avoid over watering and drought conditions.

· Air circulation should be increased.

Bitter gourd (Momordicacharantia)


·       It has immature tuberculate fruits having bitter taste.
·       Has good medicinal value.
·       Requires hot and humid climate for its growth.
·       Soil having great fertility, good drainage and pH = 5.5-6.7, rich in organic matter is best suited for cultivation of bitter gourd.
·       Direct seeding and transplanting is done for its propagation.
·       Seeds are sown in June - July in plains and March - June in hills.
·       Seed rate is 4-5kg/ha.
·       Dibbling method is used for seed sowing.
·       Seeds soaked in water before sowing will have better germination.
·       Drip system irrigation method is used for its irrigation.
·       Hoeing is done thrice to control weeds after its cultivation.
      Harvested fruits are stored for 3-4 days of in-cool conditions.
·       Seeds inside the gourd continue to mature after harvest of the gourd also.
·       Viability of seeds is for 2-3 years and stored in cool, dry spot.



· Bitter gourd is susceptible to several insect pests such as:-


Mites
Mites

  Aphids
Aphids

  Beetles
Beetles

  Fruit flies
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