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KHARIF CROPS (PART-3): FIG, BAJRA, WALNUT

Updated: Aug 6, 2022


CONTEXT

· FIG

· BAJRA

· WALNUT


FIG (Ficus carica)


Introduction-

·       Also known as ‘Anjeer’.
·       Most salt and drought tolerant crop.
·       Prevents cancer, heart disease and hypertension.
·       Improves digestion.

        Found in which areas of country?
·       Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.

        Soil conditions needed and Soil preparation-
·       Well drained loamy soil is preferred.
·       pH of soil should lie in the range of 7-8.
                 
        Rainfall and Irrigation required-
·       Moderate rainfall is required for its optimum growth.
·       Flood irrigation is done after every 10-12 days in summer.
·       Drip irrigation should be done with 15-20 liter of water per day per plant.
                 
        Sowing-
·       Seeds are sown from Mid-january to first fortnight of February.
·       Propagation method is used.
        Seed rate is 150 plants/ acre.
        
        Intercrop/ Standing crop practices-
        
·       WEEDING- generally Physical weeding, that is, weeding is done manually or Chemical weeding, that is, with the use of 2,4-D as weedicide.
·       Pesticide- spray of copper fungicide thrice a week.
                 
        Harvest and Yield-
·       Produces fruits after 2 years of planting.
·       Harvesting of crop is mainly done during February- march.
·       Its yield increases with the increase in age of plants.
·       From 8th year; Average yield= 18 kg/tree.

Major pests-

i. FRUIT FLIES-


· Uses fruits and soft tissues of vegetative parts of plant as oviposition site.


· Larval feeding in fruits occurs.


· Causes breakdown of tissues and internal rotting.


MANAGEMENT-

· With the help of its natural enemies such as Rove beetles, spiders, bats, weaver ants.

· Cleanliness and hygiene should be maintained.

· Use a mixture of apple cidar vinegar and dish soap.

ii. FIG BLISTER MITES-


· Appearance of blisters on surface of leaves.

· Stunted twigs.

· Pre mature falling of leaves.


MANAGEMENT-

· Application of horticultural oils.

· Use sulfur sprays.

· By using their natural control such as ladybugs, lacewings, predator mites.

Some diseases are-

i. FIG MOSAIC-


· Yellow spots appears on foliage.

· Uniform distribution of spots on surface of leaves.

· Presence of irregular patches, mature lesions surrounded by a brown-red band.


MANAGEMENT-

· Avoid collection of any propagation material from infected trees.

· Control of fig mites.

ii. BOTRYTIS LIMB BLIGHT-


· Presence of cankers on fruits.

· Wilting of foliage, its color turns light green or brown.

· Caused by fungus.


MANAGEMENT-

· Pruning of infected areas.

· Use of Mycostop, a fungicide.


BAJRA (Pennisetum glaucum)

Introduction-
·       Also known as Pearl millet.
·       Cultivated for grain as well as fodder purpose.
                    
        Found in which areas of country?
·       Cultivated in arid region of Africa and Asia.
·       Grown in all over India except Assam and northern part of India.
                     
        Soil conditions needed and Soil preparation-
·       Well drained soil with mild salinity.
·       pH of sil= 6-7.5
                     
        Rainfall and Irrigation required-
·       Requires low annual rainfall.
·       Since bajra is grown in rainfed areas therefore it hardly needs any irrigation.
·       Avoid irrigation during flowering or grain filling stage.
                     
        Sowing-
·       In middle or last week of july.
                     
        Seed rate-
·       4-5 kg/ha for drilling method
·       2.5-3 kg/ha for dibbling method
                     
        Intercrop/ Standing crop practices-
        
·       WEEDING- Hand weeding is done mainly (Physical weeding) or with the application of some weedicides such as Atrazine (Chemical weeding).
·       Pesticides- Some insecticide such as Carbofuran, Dimethoate can be used.
                     
        Harvest and Yield-
·       When grain becomes hard and have sufficient moisture, it is harvested.
·       It can be done by cutting of standing crop.
·       It has a yield of 30-35 quintals per hectare  (for irrigated crop).

Major pests-

i. PEARL MILLET WHITE GRUB-

· Leaves turns yellow and wilts.

· Crown dries.

· Roots and base of shoots gets severely damaged.


MANAGEMENT-

· By their natural enemies such as Ground beetles, ants.

· Through seed treatment.

ii. SHOOT FLY-

· Attacks crops in seedlings as well as leaf stage.

· Causes chaffy grains in mature crop.

· Causes dead hearts in young plants.


MANAGEMENT-

· By their natural enemies such as spiders.

· Spraying should be done after 6 days of emergence of crop.

Some diseases are-

i. DOWNY MILDEW-

· Complete ear becomes a leafy structure.

· Pale and chlorotic streaks.

· Fungal growth occurs on upper and lower surface of leaves.


MANAGEMENT-

· Timely spraying of appropriate amount of fungicides.

· By the application of Cymoxanil.

· Elimination of moisture and humidity from the surrounding of plant.

ii. ERGOT-


· Cream to pink droplets of honeydew are seen on infected florets.

· Irregularly shaped sclerotia.


MANAGEMENT-

· By using fungicide named Bavistin.

· Use clean seeds.

· Use long crop rotation technique.



WALNUT (Juglans regia)

Introduction-
·       Popularly known as Akhrot.
·       Prevents cancer.
·       Controls diabetes.
·       Improves heart and brain health.
              
Found in which area of country?
·       Mainly found in Mexico, Ukraine, China, USA, Turkey and Iran.
·       In India, it is mainly cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.
            
Soil conditions needed and Soil preparation-
·       Well drained loamy or clay loamy soil is preferred.
·       Soil should be rich in humus and lime.
·       pH of soil= 6-7.5
              
Rainfall and Irrigation required-
·       It requires annual rainfall of 800mm for its better growth and yield.
·       Irrigation is done after transplanting the crops from nursery.
·       Regular irrigation should be given.
·       Avoid irrigation during rainy season.
·       Drip irrigation is mainly done for appropriate use of water.
              
 Sowing-
·       Black walnut seeds are planted 2 inches deep in the month of September, October and November

               Intercrop/ Standing crop practices-
               
·       WEEDING- Mulching can be done, manual weeding can also prevent weeds in the field. By the use of appropriate chemical weedicides.
·       PESTICIDES- Kaolin can be used.
                
Harvest and Yield-
·       It is mainly harvested after 10-12 years of planting.
·       Whereas grafted plants are harvested after 4-5 years of planting since early fruit bearing starts in grafted plants.
·       A mature tree of walnut produces 125-150kg of nuts.
·       Average yield = 40-50kg of nuts/ tree.

Major pests-

i. CODLING MOTH-

· Its larvae feeds on kernel of walnut.

· Those nuts which gets damaged early falls from the tree, whereas those nuts that get damaged later on, remain on trees with their inedible kernels.


MANAGEMENT-

· By the application of various insecticides.

· Cutting out of damaged portions.

· Sanitation and fruits bagging can be done.


ii. WOODBORING BEETLE-

· Appearance of wood is ruined by the formation of holes on its surface.

· Causes weakness in woods.

· Presence of frass (a powdery material).

· Larvae chews the wood causing audible rasping sounds.


MANAGEMENT-

· Keeping plants in healthy condition.

· Do proper care of trees and shrubs.

· Prepare a good planting site.

Some diseases are-