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A. COTTON (Gossypium herbaceum)


·       It is the important cash crop.
·       It provides cotton fibre to cotton textile industry.

Found in which areas of country?
· Cotton is mainly grown in tropical and sub- tropical conditions.
· It is found in 10 major states which are divided into 3 zones-
North zone (Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan)
Central zone (Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat)
South zone (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu)
· Cotton is also grown in some other small areas too like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Tripura.

Soil condition needed and soil preparartion-
·       Temperature of 15 degree Celsius is preferred for its better germination.
·       Crop of cotton can resist the temperature upto 43 degree Celsius for sometime.
·       Well drained soil , black in color.
·       Avoid water logging conditions in the field.

Rainfall and irrigation method-
·       Moderate rainfall is required for better growth of cotton crop.
·       Sufficient amount of rainfall should be there in early stages of growth.
·       Irrigation of cotton is commonly done by flooding the field but furrow or alternate furrow method is most effective.
·       Drip irrigation is becoming popular in central and southern zones.
·       Cotton is sown generally in April-May in northern india and afterwards in southern india (monsoon based).
·       In the above 3 zones of India, cotton is sowing during March-May and the rainfed crop in June-July with start of monsoon.
·       Cotton is sown with the use of tractor, seed drill or by dibbling.

·       Seed rate is 3kg/acre (for desi cotton varieties).

Intercrop/ Standing crop practises-

·       WEEDING- before sowing of seeds, first tillage is necessary as a weeding method, afterwards frequent tillage of the area is needed without destroying the distance ranges from 2-4 feet between the rows of plants. Various chemicals 
·       (weedicides) are also used which are sprayed in the field against the weeds.
·       PESTICIDES- Various pesticides are fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. Example of pesticides used are- Organochlorines, organophosphates, glyphosate, boric acid.

Harvest and Yield-
·       Harvesting of cotton crop is mainly done mechanically when the crop is fully matured after 160-170days of sowing.
·       In southern parts parts of country, cotton crop is harvested in mid-july and in northern parts in early September.
·       Harvesting of cotton by hand picking should be done in the morning.
·       Some harvesting of cotton is also done by machines like cotton harvesters.
·       India is one of the largest producer of cotton in the world.



· These are the most consistent and predictable pests of cotton.

· These insects have piercing-sucking and rasping type of mouth parts.

· Feeds on every part of cotton plant.

· Causes stunted growth of plant and delay in crop maturity.


· Some biological control methods used are use of parasitoids, predators that controls thrips biologically or by genetic manipulation of organisms.

· Some mechanical methods used are- use of sound waves, electricity, temperature.

· Some cultural control methods used are- delay the date of sowing or by using host plant resistance varieties of cotton.


· it is a polyphagous insect, that is. Which sucks sap of plant.

· Prefers warmer places.

· They vary in size and color from light yellow to dark green.

· These causes little or no damage to crops


· Spray of strong stream of water on infected plants.

· With the application of neem oil, insecticidal soaps which are effective against the aphids.

· Also by biological control , that is, with the use of ladybugs, hover flies, lacewing larvae and parasitic wasps.



It is caused by Colletotrichum gossypii.


· It causes wilting, withering of tissues.

· The infection is mainly caused to developing shoots and leaves.

· Lesions or spots of different color on the surface of leaves, stems, fruits and flowers.

· Cankers are formed on twigs and branches.


· Destroy the infected plant debris removed from the field.

· Treat the seeds with fungicides such as Carboxin or Thiram.

· Spray copper based fungicides to the crops in the field.

· Avoid water logging conditions in the soil.


It is caused by soil- borne fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola.


· Yellowing or bronzing of leaves.

· Initially (in first 2 days) upper leaves wilt then after sometime, wilting of lower leaves occurs.

· By the third day, permanent wilting occurs which further leads to death.


· Some cultural controls are- deep ploughing, mulching can be used to control this disease.

· Alter the soil environment (that is, to make soil unsuitable for the pathogen) by using different types of fertilizers.

· Summer flooding is also one of the method to manage the disease.

B. TURMERIC (Curcuma longa)


· Also known as ‘Indian Saffron’.

· It is used as dye, drug, cosmetic and in religious ceremonies.

· India is a leading producer and exporter of turmeric.

Found in which areas of country?

· Major states where turmeric is cultivated are- Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Assam.

Soil condition needed and Soil preparation-

· Optimum temperature required for its cultivation is 24-28 degree Celsius.

· Preferred type of soil for its cultivation is well drained sandy or loamy soil.

· pH of soil should be between 4.5-7.5

· Soil should be rich in organic content.

· Its land preparation is done by ploughing the land 2-3 times followed by planking.

Rainfall and Irrigation method-

· Annual rainfall for better growth of turmeric should be 1500mm or more.

· Turmeric crops needs 15-20 irrigations in heavy soil and 35-40 irrigations in light soil.

· Precision irrigation is also done for application of appropriate amount of water and fertilizers.

· It is grown as rainfed crop in order to provide irrigation depending upon intensity and frequency of rainfall.


· Sowing of complete rhizome is done by the end of april. It can also done by transplanting method.

· It is grown as rainfed crop in order to provide irrigation depending upon intensity and frequency of rainfall.

· Seed rate is 2500kg/hectare.

Intercrop/ Standing crop practices-

· WEEDING- hand weeding (Mechanical method) is mainly done in its cultivation. Also done with the integrated use of herbicides and paddy straw mulch (Chemical method)

or by using certain insects which prevents growth of weeds (Biological methods).

· PESTICIDES- spray of granular insecticides like Carbofuran.


· Turmeric crop takes 6-9 months for harvesting.

· When leaves of turmeric turns yellow and dry out completly, it is the indication to harvest it.



· Most serious pest of turmeric.

· Its larvae feeds on internal tissue of peudostems.

· A bore-hole is present on the pseudostem which is the symptom of pest infestation.

· Its life cycle lasts for 4-5 weeks.


· Spray of malathion should be done at 21 days interval from July to October.

· Destroying of affected shots.


· It infects rhizomes during its cultivation in the field and during storage too.

· Females feeds on sap.

· During severe condition, rhizome and buds shrivel and dies.

· Appearance of white spots on surface of rhizome.


· Selection of healthy seeds and seedlings for planting purpose.

· Spray of Malathion on crops.

· Destroying of damaged leaves.

· Destroy severely infested rhizomes.



It is caused by Pythium aphanidermatum.


· Root infection is noticed.

· Tips of lower leaves turns yellow which spreads to leaf blade.

· Affected collar region of pseudostem becomes water soaked.

· Drooping, withering and drying of pseudostems occurs.


· From disease- free area, select the healthy rhizomes. Healthy seeds multiplied by tissue culture can control or manage the disease.

· Grow resistant varieties like Suvarna, Sugauna.

· Avoid water stagnation in the field.

· Remove infected crops from the field.


It is caused by Colletotrichum capsici.


· Brown spots appears on the upper surface of young leaves.

· Spots are irregular in shape.

· Different small sized spots coalesce later to form a large irregular patch that cover the whole surface of leaf.

· Centre of spots contains fruiting structures.


· Selection of seeds from disease free areas.

· Treatment of seeds with mancozeb or carbendazim.

· Destroy the removed infected debris from the field in order to reduce the source of inoculums in field.

· Crop rotation should be practised.