Updated: Aug 14, 2022
PAPAYA (Carica papaya)
INTRODUCTION- It is also a monsoon crop or autumn crop. This fruits mainly belongs to Mexico. It has a high nutritional value. India is the largest producer of papaya. It is rich in vitamin A and C. Some benefits of papaya are- · Prevents cancer · Lowers cholesterol · Prevents constipation · Fights with cancer cells FOUND IN WHICH AREAS OF COUNTRY?- West Bengal, Orrisa, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh. SOIL CONDITIONS NEEDED SOIL PREPARATION- Well drained soil, hilly soils. Optimum pH of soil for papaya farming = 6.5 – 7. RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION REQUIRED- Papaya crop requires a good amount of rainfall. Rainfall may begins in May in some parts of country. Regular irrigation is required for better yield. Irrigation is done in 7-10 days in cooler weather and 4-5 days in hot weather. SOWING- In Mid July to third week of September. Propagation method is used for sowing. Transplanting can also be done from first week of September to mid October. SEED RATE- 150 – 200 Gram seeds per aacre. INTERCROP/ STANDING CROP PRACTICES- WEEDING- deep hoeing is done manually during 1st year to check the presence of weed. Use of weedicide named as Alachlorin can effectively controls weed growth. PESTICIDES- Insecticides such as Malathion, Buprofazin can be used. HARVEST AND YIELD- When fruit become full in size and light in colour with light yellow colour at its apical ends. Harvesting is done after 14-15 months of planting. In a particular season, the yield of papaya is 70-100 tonnes/ hectare.
i. ROOT KNOT NEMATODE-
· Stunting and wilting of affected plants.
· Yellowing of leaves.
· When infection is severe, roots may galled heavily leading to poor root system.
· Crop rotation can be practiced.
· Sanitation should be done at regular intervals.
ii. PAPAYA MEALYBUG-
· Plants get dried.
· Presence of honeydew on surface of affected plants.
· Removal and immediate destroying of infected crop residues.
· By using some natural enemies such as ladybird beetles, lacewings, hoverflies.
SOME DISEASES ARE-
i. FOOT ROT OF PAPAYA-
Caused by Phytophthora palmivora, Fusarium solani and Pythium.
· Water- soaked patches on lower part of stem.
· Stunted plants and malformed fruits.
· No planting in that area where disease has appeared once.
· Treatment of seed with Thiram or Captan.
ii. PAPAYA RING SPOT DISEASE-
Caused by Papaya ringspot virus- type P.
· Chlorosis on young leaves.
· Transmitted by aphids during hot weather.
· Removal of infected plants as soon as possible from the field.
· Use 2 rows of maize on borders of papaya crop field.
CHIKOO (Manilkara zapota)
INTRODUCTION- Also known as Sapota. This fruit is rich in calorie with a delicious taste. It mainly belongs to Mexico and South America. Its fruit is called Berry. It lowers the risk of cancer. It is rich in vitamin A and B. Also reduces chances of lung and oral cancers. FOUND IN WHICH AREAS OF THE COUNTRY? Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. SOIL CONDITIONS NEEDED AND SOIL PREPARATION- Well drained alluvial, sandy soil and black soil is preferred for sapota farming. Avoid farming in calcium rich soil. pH of soil = 6-8. RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION REQUIRED- Annual rainfall between 1250 – 2500mm is required for better yield of sapota. Drip irrigation is preferred. In winters, irrigation can be done at an interval of 30 days whereas in summers, at an interval of 12 days. SOWING- Mainly in February to march and August to October. INTERCROP/ STANDING CROP PRACTICES- WEEDING- Removal of weeds should be done at regular intervals. Weedicides such as Bromacil can be used to destroy weeds in the field. PESTICIDES- Bio clean sweep – a biopesticide can be highly effective. HARVEST AND YIELD- Harvesting of papaya crop is mainly done in Julu – September. Avoid harvesting of unripened fruits. Yield of papaya crop is 8 tonnes per acre.
i. CHIKOO MOTH-
· Larvae feeds on leaves, buds, flowers and fruits.
· Presence of dark brown patches on leaves.
· Affected tree branches get dried and withers.
· Use of plant resistant varieties.
· Pruning of crowded branches.
· Removal and destroy of infected crop residues from the field.
ii. SPIRALING WHITEFLY-
· Damaged leaves.
· Black sooty mould is formed.
· Chlorotic spots on surface of leaves.
· Wash the affected parts of plant with strong stream of water.
· Use of insecticidal soap.
SOME DISEASES ARE-
i. HEART ROT-
Caused by fungi which enters tree trunk through wounds on its trunk and branches.
· A fungal disease.
· Decays wood at the centre of trunk and branches.
· By using spray of Carbendazim with water.
· Pruning of wood at an early age.
ii. SOOTY MOULD-
· Entire leaf surface is covered with fungus.
· Reduced size of fruits.
· By using systemic insecticides.
· Also by wiping the affected part of plant with a damp cloth.
BLACK GRAM (Vigna mungo)
INTRODUCTION- It is also known as Urad. It is resistant to adverse climatic conditions. It also fixes atmospheric nitrogen in soil and helps in improving the soil fertility. It is rich in protein and used as an ingredient in dosa, idli, papad and vada. FOUND IN WHICH AREAS OF THE COUNTRY? Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar (maximum yield is recorded), Sikkim and Jharkhand. SOIL CONDITIONS NEEDED AND SOIL PREPARATION- Well drained loam, clay loam, sandy soils, heavy cotton soils. pH of soil =6.5 – 7.8 Soil should be rich in organic matter. RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION REQUIRED- Black gram requires 60-75cm rainfall annually. Irrigation is not mandatory in this crop until there is dry spell during the season and if irrigation is given, it is provided at an interval of 8-10 days in summer. SOWING- Seeds are sown mainly during Mid June. Seed rate is 8-10 kg/ha. INTERCROP/ STANDING CROP PRACTICES- WEEDING- Manual weeding is done after 2 weeks of sowing. Also by using a weedicide named as Basalin, weeds growth can be controlled. PESTICIDES- such as Methyl demeton can be used. HARVEST AND YIELD- Harvested plants can be used as fodder for animals. Black gram crop is harvested when 70-80% pods get matured, that is, its colour becomes black. Yield of black gram crop is 800-1100kg/acre.
i. BEAN POD BORER-
· Frass is present on pods, stem and shoot.
· Pods, inflorescence and leaves are tied together.
· Destruction of eggs and pupae.
· By using Pheromone traps, light traps.
ii. Leaf hopper-
· Nymphs and adults sucks plant sap.
· Leaves becomes cup shaped – poor growth of plant.
· By using spray of methyl-o-demeton in water.
SOME DISEASES ARE-