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POTATO AND SWEET POTATO FARMING


CONTEXT

POTATO FARMING

SWEET POTATO FARMING

MARKETING OF POTATO

MARKETING OF SWEET POTATO

ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF GROWING POTATOES

ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF GROWING SWEET POTATOES


POTATO FARMING

INTRODUCTION-
It is the most important crop. Also known as Poor man fried. It is originated in South America. It is the source of vitamin and starch. Used to make chips. It is used for industrial purposes such as production of alcohol and starch. It is an economical food since it is a source of low cost energy to humans.

FOUND IN WHICH AREAS OF THE COUNTRY?
Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka, Jalandhar, Hoshiyarpur, Ludhiana, Patiala.

SOIL CONDITIONS NEEDED AND SOIL PREPARATION-
Well drained sandy loam and medium loam soils and soil should be rich in organic matter. It prefers acidic soil.

RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION REQUIRED-
Rainfall required by potato crop is 1200-2000mm per annum. In this, Drip irrigation is done. Irrigation is done 2-3 days after planting. Avoid flooding the field with water for the purpose of irrigation for better yield of potato crop.

SOWING-
There are 3 types of crops done at different time. It is done from last week of September to 1st week of November

SEED RATE-
8-18 quintal/acre.

INTERCROP/ STANDING CROP PRACTICES-
WEEDING- manual weeding is done. Weeds are removed and destroyed by earthing up operation in the field. Mulching can also be done to control the infestation of weeds. Some weedicides such as Metribuzin can also be used.
PESTICIDE- such as Thiamethoxam can also be used.

HARVEST AND YIELD-
Potato crop is harvested after 2-3 weeks of planting. It is harvested when it gets mature, that is, turns yellow and dry.
Yield of potato in India is 200-300 quintal/hectare.

MAJOR PESTS-


1. POTATO TUBER MOTH-


  • Its larvae makes tunnels in the stem and tubers.

  • Weakens stem of infected plants

  • Attacks solanaceous crops in which its preference in a potato crop.

MANAGEMENT

  • By the use of predatory insects such as braconid wasps.

  • By the use of some beneficial nematodes.

  • By installation of Pheromone traps.


2. POTATO CUTWORM-


  • Curls in a C-shaped worm when any stimulus is given from outside.

  • Cut the stems of potato plants.

  • Feeds on leaf’s epidermis.

MANAGEMENT

  • Removal of larvae manually (handpicking) from the field.

  • Installation of light traps


SOME DISEASES ARE-


1. POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID-

Caused by POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID

  • Causes mild strains.

  • Overlapping and upward rolling of leaflets.

MANAGEMENT-

  • By burning the plant debris after removing it from the field.

  • Bury the crop residues deeply into the ground.


2. COMMON SCAB-


  • The surface area of potato get rough.

  • Presence of lesions.

MANAGEMENT-

  • By the use of acidic fertilisers.

  • Do not use lime in excess amount into the field.


SWEET POTATO

INTRODUCTION
Sweet potato  is a starchy food which is mainly grown in tropical and sub tropical regions of the country. It is also known asSAKHARKANDA. It is the source of vitamin B6, E and C. 
Some benefits of sweet potato are-
Good for heart
Relieves stress
Good digestion
Provides immunity
Prevents cancer

FOUND IN WHICH AREAS OF THE COUNTRY?
Sweet potato farming is mainly belongs to tropical America.
Some states are-  Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Chattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Assam.

SOIL CONDITIONS NEEDED AND SOIL PREPARATION-
Well drained sandy loam soil. Soil should be rich in humus and organic matter. pH of soil for better yield = 5.7-6.7

RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION REQUITRED-
Rainfall required  for its best growth is 750-1200mm. And since it is grown in Kharif season therefore it requires less irrigation. Irrigation is given for 2 days in a period of 10 days and then it is given once in a period of 10 days. Also 1 irrigation is mandatory before harvesting.

SOWING-
It is done in January to February. Propagation method is used for sowing.

SEED RATE-
35-40kg tubers in half a kernel land.

INTERCROP/ STANDING CROP PRACTICES-
WEEDING- It is necessary mainly in initial days. Earthing up process is done for weeding after approximately 18-20 days of planting. Metribuxin, a weedicide, can also be used to kill weeds.
PESTICIDES- Chlorprophan can be used.

HARVEST AND YIELD-
Digging process is used for harvesting by using pick-axe or fork. Harvesting is mainly done after 120 days of planting when sweet potatoes turns yellow in colour.
Its yield is 100 quintal/acre.

MAJOR PESTS-


1. SWEET POTATO WEEVILS-


  • Yellowing, wilting and cracking of vines.

  • Tunnels in tuber or holes in vines may observed.

MANAGEMENT

  • By using Pheromone traps.

  • Crop rotation method can also be adopted.

2. ARMY WORMS-



  • Destructive pest.

  • Causes damage to Maize.

MANAGEMENT

  • Use insecticides if detected in initial days of infection.

  • By using disease resistant varieties of Maize.

SOME DISEASES ARE-


1. LITTLE LEAF a bacterial disease


  • Caused by Phytoplasma

  • Vein clearing

MANAGEMENT

  • By using disease resistant varieties.

  • By taking planting materials from uninfected folds/ lands/ gardens.


2. CHARCOAL ROT – a fungal disease

Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina

  • Destroy the entire root.

  • Appearance of water-soaked lesions on 2. CHARCOAL ROT the surface of petioles and stems.

MANAGEMENT

  • Cure sweet potatoes immediately after harvest.

  • Crop rotation practise is adopted.


MARKETING OF POTATOES-

Potatoes have a strong price and demand in the market because of its low cost-to-calorie ratio. People prefer smaller potatoes instead of larger one due to better flavour and shorter cook time of smaller potatoes. According to the survey, McDonald’s buys the most potatoes every year in the entire world. And also potato is a profitable crop mainly in tropical countries since it has more nutrition and yield then white rice too.

MARKETING OF SWEET POTATOES-

Sweet potatoes are marketed in Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) which is located in Belgaum. From where, sweet potatoes are sent to wholesale markets. There are 2 types of marketing channels followed by farmers-
Channel I
Producers  APMC market  wholesale market  Retailer  Consumer
Channel II
Producers  APMC market  Retailer  Consumers
Also there are various sales agent who contact different buyer of commodity. These sales agent discuss the time and place of deliver with the buyer and also how much amount is to be sold and money.

ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF GROWING POTATOES-
  • We can get large amount of food on limited area of land.

Example: 1hectare of potato can have more and better yield than 4 hectare of grain.

  • It provides low cost energy to human’s diet.

  • More healthier than white rice.

  • Potato farming increases soil fertility.

  • Low cost high productive crop.

  • Easy to cultivate.

ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF GROWING SWEET POTATOES-
  • Sweet potatoes largely contribute to livestock production.

  • Used as food.

  • It has industrial uses such as fuel, citric acid, ethanol, sweetners.

  • Has a trait of good drought tolerance.

  • 1 hectare can produce a large amount of dry matter.

  • Has a large contribution in economic growth of Phillipines.





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