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Production Technology of Zaid Crops (Part-4) | BLOG SHURUWAATAGRI

Updated: May 18, 2022

Table of Contents
  1. Bottle gourd

· Crop Introduction

· Soil Requirement

· Climate Requirement

· Time of Showing and Showing Method

· Manures and Fertilizers

· Inter cultural operations

· Major insect pest and their management

· Average Yield

2. Tomato

Bottle gourd

Climatic requirement: Bottle gourd can be grown in warm and humid and slightly cold climate. It is susceptible to Frost and cold temperature. The optimum temperature for bottle gourd cultivation is 24 to 27 degree Celsius.

Soil: It grows best on Sandy loam and loam soil with rich in organic matter having optimal pH 6.0 to 7.0. The bottle gourd is susceptible to water logging.

Sowing and planting:

It can be shown direct seeded or transplanted method. The crop is grown on flat or raised bed about 200 to 250 cm wide and seeds are sown both side of the bed at distance of 45 to 60 cm in row. Generally 2 to 3 seeds are sown in each side. Seedlings raised in small poly bags are transplanted in the field at same distance, 40 to 60 cm on both.

Seed rate: 4 to 6 kg per hectare

Showing time: Seeds are shown in February- March for summer crop and June /July August for rainy season crop. In Northern plain October November under protection, cover the young seeding to save them from cold injury. In river bed cultivation the seeds are sown in November December.

Manure and fertilizers:

About 20 to 25 ton per hectare farmyard manure /compost are applied at the time of land preparation and about 50 to 60 kg nitrogen and 40 to 50 Phosphorus and 40 to 60 kg Potassium is required for bottle gourd cultivation. Half dose of nitrogen is applied at the time of field preparation and half those of nitrogen are Basal dressing or band application just before plant start fruiting

Irrigation: 4 to 6 days interval in summer season, in rainy season the crop water requirement is comparatively less than summer season depending upon the rainfall which may be done in 10 to 15 days

Intercultural operation: About 2 to 3 weeding, light hoeing required.

Deep intercultural practices should be avoided as it may damage the shallow root of the bottle gourd.

Staking: Generally the plants are allowed to trade on the ground bed however in the rainy season crop plants are state on thin bamboo pole over pandal to avoid rotting of fruit which come in contact with the soil.

Major diseases

1. Mosaic viral disease

Symptoms: reduction of size of leaf.

Serration of leaf margin and filiform

The internodes become shortened and yield reduced

Control measures:

· clean cultivation and hygienic

· Eradication of weeds of cucurbitaceous family


Symptoms: Shortening of inter nodes and phyllody normal flower transformed into green leaf like structure

Control measures:

· Spraying Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (500 ppm), 5 times at 7 days interval remove all the infected plants from the field as soon as noticed.

Yield: The average yield is 25 to 30 tons per hectare


Climatic requirement: Tomato is a warm season crop can be grown in plains as well as Hills of India the optimum temperature for tomato cultivation is 21 to 24 degree Celsius. The temperature below 16 degree Celsius and above 27 degree Celsius is harmful to the crop.

Soil: Tomato can be grown on a wide range of soil like Sandy, clay and sandy loam soil however light and well drained soil such as loam and sandy loam soil with rich in organic matter is preferred for growing tomatoes. The optimum pH of soil should be 6 to 7.

Seed rate: About 250 to 500 gram seeds are required for 1 hectare cultivation of tomato. For hybrid cultivars this requirement is 150 to 175 gram per hectare .Transplanting of Seedling is a common practice in tomato cultivation

Sowing and planting season:

The season of sowing and transplanting vary with location region mainly due to climate temperature humidity rainfall, soil irrigation facilities and incidence of disease and insect pest

In western region like Maharashtra, Gujarat and Southern region like Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh are commonly adopted sowing period are June- July /October -November and January February. Tomato is sown in February March or March April in Northern Hills,

Planting and spacing

About 30 to 45 days old healthy and stout seedlings are transplanted in the field. The Seedlings are transplanted in the open field on flatbed, raised beds on ridges.

Seedlings transplanted on flat bed are later earthed up on both side of the plant to form ridges along the row when they are well established

Transplanting of seedlings on raised beds is done on both sides and only on one side when planted on ridges. The width of raised bed is 60 to 75 cm and height 15cm and 20cm. The ridges are normally 15 to 20 cm height. There are 45 to 60 cm wide and 15 cm deep furrow both side.


Planting on a raised bed is done into two rows one on each side of the bed. The distance between rows is 60 to 75 cm and 30 to 45 cm in the plant.

Field preparation:

The field is prepared by 2 or 3 ploughing by proper leveling .It should have proper drainage and adequate furrows for irrigation. Tomato should not be grown continuously in the same field or in a same crop rotation with other solanaceous crops like brinjal, sweet paper, tomato on tobacco.

Manure and fertilizers:

About 35 to 40 tons of well decomposed organic manure compost are applied in one hectare at the time of field preparation. For normal varieties 50 kg nitrogen 60 kg phosphorus and 60 kg Potassium is required but For hybrid varieties 250 kg Nitrogen 250 kg Phosphorus and 250 kg Potassium required’

Staking: The plants are staked to avoid damage to fruits which otherwise may rot when they come in contact with soil ,if not staked .The common practices is to stake individual plants or provide support to plant in a row. For Staking bamboo poles are used but in some places individual plants are the staked with dried plant stem of cotton. In other method each plant in a row is tied to a horizontal bamboo pole with the help of string or in plastic string. In some places instead of bamboo poles galvanized iron wires as are used which the plants in a row are tied with hesign string.

Pruning and Training: In indeterminate varieties /hybrid the fruit size if desired for the market can be increased by pruning and training of the plant. Either 2 or 3 strong basal stems are retained and all auxiliary branches removed by disbudding allowing only the main stem to grow and produce flowers and fruits.

Irrigation and inter culture

The first irrigation is given immediately after transplanting of seedlings and thereafter the crop is irrigated after every 10 -15 days in whole season and 4 to 6 days during summer. After two or three days of irrigation when the soil becomes dry and in the workable condition intercultural by light hoeing of surface soil is done by and hand hoeing.

Major diseases of tomato plant

1. Damping off: it is a fungal disease.


Pre and post emergence damping off causes rooting, falling over and mortality of seedling and nursery beds

Control measures

· Well drained and raised nursery bed are used

· Sow seeds sparsely to prevent overcrowding of Seedling

· treat the seeds with Captain, Thiram or Bavistin @ 3 gram per kg of seeds before sowing

· avoid overwatering

· Solarization of soil in nursery bed in warm hot weather by covering than with plastic seat for two weeks before sowing of seeds

· Rotation of nursery bed site every year , if possible

· Drench nursery bed with mancozeb 0.25% and carbendazim 0.05% with damping off appears

2. Bacterial wilt

Symptoms: lower young leaves followed by complete wilting of the infective plant

Yellow to brown discoloration of the vascular tissue and with and contact become dark brown

A freshly cut piece of the stem when placed in water with so milky white is transposing out from the cut end. Bacterial wilt is a soil borne disease’

Control measures

· crop rotation using Maize, Ragi, cowpea ,soya bean, Jowar, French Bean and other known solanaceous crops for at least three years

· proper weed control

· treat nursery bed with views Basamid

· Apply bleaching powder 15 kg per hectare 30 days before transplanting

Application of neem cake or groundnut cake in transplanting of seedlings decrease the incidence of the disease

· Grow resistance varieties.

3. Tomato mosaic virus

Symptoms: light and dark Green Mottling with yellowing mosaic pattern on leaves

Upward and downward curling of leaves

Control measures:

· Destruction of infected plant debris.

· Grow resistant cultivar and hybrids.

· Rogue out infected plant.

· Sow seeds in steam sterilize soil.

· If possible workers should wash their hands with soap and water and avoid smoking and chewing tobacco in tomato nursery and fits.

Major pest:

1. Tomato fruit borer:

Management practices:

· Collect and destroy the infected fruits and grown up larvae.

· Setup pheromone trap with helilure @ 15 / hac.

· Six releases of T. chilonis @ 50,000 /ha per week coinciding with flowering time.

· Release Chrysoperla carnea at weekly interval at 50,000 eggs or grubs / ha. from 30 DAS.

· Spray carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or B. thuringiensis 2 gram/ lit

· Provide poison bait with carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran12.5 kg , jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit/ ha .

Yield: The average yield of open pollinated varieties is 20 to 30 ton/ha and for hybrid varieties 65 to 75 ton/ha.

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