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Zaid Crops: Part-2 | BLOG SHURUWAAtAGRI

Updated: Apr 28, 2022

Content

Maize

Pigeon pea (Arhar)

Ridge gourd

Ground nut

Maize

Scientific name- zea mays


Maize is a tall, determinate, plant producing large, narrow opposing leaves borne alternately along the length of solid stem. Maize is grown both for human consumption (as sweet corn) and animal feed and biofuels ( as field maize). It is good source of vitamins and minerals in human body and provides 20% of total calories in human diet. Maize is cultivated in every part of India in various purposes such as grain, fodder, popcorn, sweet corn and baby corn. #zaidcrop #zaidseason



Growing season- Maize can be grown in all seasons i.e. kharif, monsoon, post monsoon, Rabi and spring. The summer maize should be sown in second fortnight of January as high humidity, temperature,etc. factors are experienced later which affect the grain formation so sowing must be done before first week of February.


Seed rate- Seed rate of Maize is 15-20 kg per hectares. Depth of sowing should be 3.5 cm. Seed treatment must be with thiram @2.5g/ kg seed.


Soil- Loamy and Sandy loam soil is suitable for growing zaid maize. The soil must have good organic matter content, high water holding capacity and neutral pH.

Fertilizer management- NPK required for composite variety must be in the ratio of 80:40:40 and for desi varieties the ratio must be 60:30:30. N is given half as basal dose and half after sowing.


Irrigation: 6- 8 irrigation can be given at 10-12 days intervals.


Weeding- Two hand weeding can be done, first at 20-30 days after germination and second at 30- 40 days after germination or spraying of Atrazine 50%WP in 800 litres of water per hac. at 2-3 days intervals.


Major disease and their management-


Polysora rust (Puccinia polysora): Golden brown circular to oval pustules appear on upper part of leaves. It is mostly found in coastal areas like A.P. and Karnataka as mild temperature and high humidity is there. Varieties resistant to polysora rust are hybrid hema(NAH-1137), Deccan-105, NAC-6002,etc.



Turcicum leaf blight( Excerohilum turcicum): Long, elliptical, greyish green strips upper on lower part of leaves spreading towards upper part. This disease is found mostly in high humidity and cooler places like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, etc. Resistant varieties are Vivek 21, Vivek 23, Vivek 25, PEMH-5, etc. or spray Mencozeb @2.5g/liters at 8-10 days intervals.


Major pests and their management:-


Shoot fly( Antherigona sp.)It is a serious pest in South India but also attack maize in spring and summer season in seedling stage. Tiny maggots creep under leaf sheath till it reaches the seedling. To control this, spring crop is sown along with seed treatment with Imidachloprid @6ml/kg seed.

Pink borer(Sesamia inference)- The moth lay eggs in leaf sheath and the larvae of Sesamia enters the plant and cause demage to stem. To control this, foliar spraying of 0.1% Endosulfan after 10 days of germination.


Yield: The yield of pigeon pea is 2-3 tonnes/ ha.

Pigeon pea (Arhar)

Scientific name- Cajanus cajan


Pigeon pea is commonly known tur and red gram. It is a second most important pulse crop in India. It is usually eaten in the form of ‘dal’. It is rich in iron, protein and essential amino acid. More than 80% of pulses are grown in 6 states of Maharashtra, M.P., Karnataka, U.P., Gujarat and Jharkhand.


Growing season- It is a crop of tropical areas grown mainly in semi- arid region of India. Temperature required for this crop ranges from 26°-30°C from June to October. It is very sensitive crop which requires low radiation at pod development stage, flowering during monsoon and cloudy weather leads to poor pod formation.


Seed rate- The seed rate of pigeon pea depends upon the variety. Early maturity variety needs 20-25kg/ha. ( Row-to-Row spacing is 45-60cm and plant- to- plant is 10-15cm.) For Medium/ late variety needs 15-20kg/ha. (Row-to-Row spacing is 60-75 cm and plant-to-plant spacing is 15-20cm). Seed treatment with thiram @ 3g/kg of seed is done.


Soil- It grows best in black cotton soil with pH ranges from 7.0-8.5. The soil must be properly tilled, well drained and deeply ploughed. Broad bed furrow/ ridge furrow planting in low laying as well as Intercropping areas is recommended.


Fertilizer management- The soil test decides the doses of fertilizer. The fertilizer applied is 25-30kg of N, 40-50kg of P2O5, 30kg K2O. Macro nutrients like Sulphur, Iron and zinc.


Irrigation- Pigeon pea is a deep rooted crop and can tolerate drought. If there is a drought then 3 irrigations are required.


Weeding- Two mechanical weeding are enough first at 20-25 days and another at 40-45 days of sowing, as first 60 days are critical and harmful for pigeon pea crop. Pendimethaline can also be applied @ 0.75-1 kg a.i. per hectares in 400-600 litres of water.


Major disease and their management-


Phytophthora blight: Circular and water soaked lesions are appeared on leaves which spread rapidly results in braking of leaves and stems in winds. To control this, treatment of seeds with Metalaxyl 35 WS @3g/ kg of seed. Crop rotation can also done.


Sterility mosaic disease: It is caused by mosaic viruses which results in pale green appearance of leaves without flowers and leaves are small. Spray Fenazaquin 10 EC @1ml/ lit. of water at 45-60 DAS.


Major pest and their management-


Pod borers: The larvae feed on leaves and demage them. It can be seen in vegetative stage. To control this, spray Indoxacarb 15.8% SC@ 333ml/ ha.


Plume moth: The larvae demage the flower, bud, leaves to drop. To control this, apply neem oil @ 2%.


Yield- The yield of pigeon pea is 25-30 q/ha. The yield of sticks for fuel is 50-60 q/ha

Ridge gourd

Scientific name- Luffa acutangula


Ridge gourd is a cucurbitacous summer crop which is grown through out the year in northern region. It is a climber and used as vegetable. Pusa Nasdar, Satputia and PKM-1 are the recommended varieties.


Growing season- Ridge gourd is cultivated in both summer and rainy season. Summer crop is grown from January to April and temperature required is 25-30°C.

Seed rate- The seed rate of pigeon pea is 3.5-5kg/ ha. Row-to-Row spacing is 1.5-3.5cm and Plant-to-plant spacing is 60-120cm.


Soil- The required soil is loam, clay loam and silt soil for pigeon pea cultivation. The soil must be well drained with neutral pH.


Fertilizer management- At the time land preparation, 10-15tonnes/ha. of FYM should be applied and 25:30:30 kg/ha. NPK doses before sowing as basal dose.


Irrigation- Pigeon pea is a summer season crop so subsequent irrigations must be given at 4-5 days intervals after sowing.


Weeding- Apply Paraquat @800g/acre to control the weeds.


Major disease and their management-


Powdery mildew- The white to grey patches on leaves are seen and become powdery as they enlarge results in defoliation. To control this, spray Carbendazim @0.5%.

Fusarium wilt- In this, old plants Fusarium wilt- In this, old plants wilt suddenly and vascular bundle collar region show decolouration. To control, crop rotation and resistant varieties can be used.



Major pest and their management-


Leaf hopper: Green colored hopper and it’s nymph are seen under the leaves as they suck the sap resulting burning symptoms. To control this, spray Imidacloprid, Acetaf,etc.


Leaf miner- The leaf is mined and lead to defoliation as the larvae cuts the leaf due to which it falls. To control this, spray neem oil or garlic mixture early in the morning.


Yield- The average yield of pigeon pea is 80-120q/ha.

Ground nut

Scientific name- Arachis hypogea


Ground nut or peanut is a self- pollinated important legumes nut used for oil production, consumed by human as food and also given to animals in the form of hay, silage, cake, etc. It is an oilseed crop. It’s cake contain 45-50% protein and all amino acid.


Growing season- Ground nut is cultivated in summer in Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh with 9-12 irrigations. It is sown in last week of January to 1st week of February. The optimum temperature range is 25-35°C.


Seed rate- Ground nut is grown in two varieties: Spreading type varieties require 80-100kg/ ha. Of seed rate with a spacing of 60cm×10cm and bunching type varieties require 100-125kg/ha of seed rate with a spacing of 45cm× 10cm.


Soil- The best soil for ground nut cultivation is sandy Loamy soil with organic matter and neutral pH.


Fertilizer management- The required doses of N:P:K fertilizer is 20:40:40 kg/ha for ground nut crop. Gypsum is also applied in 250kg/ha in the interval of 20-25DAS.

Weeding- Weeding is preferred in 20, 24 and 60 days of sowing. Weeds can be controlled chemically also by applying pre-emergence fluchloralin @0.9kg a.i./ha.


Major pest and their management-


Ground nut Aphids- The nymph and adult suck the sap under the leaves results in reducing the yield of the crop. To control this, Imidacloprid and neem based compound can be used.


Red hairy caterpillar- The larvae hatch out and scrap the under surface of tender leaflets due to which pods are loaded. To control this, spray Phosalone @ 0.5% and other chemicals.


Major disease and their management-


Botrytis blight- Numerous spots are seen on upper part of leaflet results in wilting of plant. To control this, apply fungicide like benomyl.